The inflammatory process in the urethra – the urethra, often strikes young men. The disease does not pass independently, it is to be dealt with. But it is important to distinguish between infectious urethritis and its symptoms in men symptoms of non-infectious nature. The result of treatment depends on correct and timely diagnosis.
Approved classification and staging
The difference between the urethra in men, symptoms and treatment, because the type of pathogen, the stage of the process, the basic disease. Relying on the cause of inflammation, there are two groups.
Infectious urethritis caused by certain types of micro-organisms:
- the tubercle bacillus
Infectious the urethra, the occurrence of which is not related to disease-causing agents:
- allergic reaction
- violation of the mucous membrane after
- medical procedures or injuries
- violation of blood circulation in the pelvic congestion
- to prevent the outflow of urine
For the duration of the course is acute and chronic processes, each of which has its own development stages and clinical picture.
Acute urethritis in men occurs in three stages:
- Latency time is characterized by the absence of symptoms, can take 2 – 3 days up to a month.
- The time is pronounced in the clinic.
- Recovery or chronic disease and the transition from the lazy form.
Chronic process is two separate steps:
- Relapse – exacerbation of all symptoms, occurs under the influence of harmful factors.
- Remission – a hidden inflammation is characterized by prolonged visual manifestations.
The reasons and factors supporting
Symptoms of urethritis in men and reason are closely related to each other.
- Infections transmitted by sexual contact. Most of the disease is infection by the gonococcus, chlamydia and Trichomonas.
- Conventionally-pathogenic microflora, normally present in everyone, but suppressed the immune system. These include: Escherichia coli, Candida, staphylococci, streptococci.
Non-infectious causes of diseases associated with stagnation of urine, lack of flushing of the urinary tract in a natural way, violating the integrity of the mucosa.
- The formation of kidney stones.
- Manipulation involves examination of the urinary tract: cystoscopy, catheterization.
- Allergic processes.
- Tumors training.
In addition to these causes of urethritis in men, there are factors that weaken the immune system, and promotes rapid growth of pathogenic flora:
- long-term hypothermia;
- poor nutrition, abuse salty and spicy foods, vitamin deficiencies;
- exercise, stagnation of blood in the pelvis;
- a total decrease of protective forces in the face of excessive physical and mental stress;
- neglect of personal hygiene;
- under chemical stimuli.
In rare cases, the disease develops when the penetration of infection in a chronic to focus on the current blood or lymph.
The most common symptoms of the acute period
Regardless of the cause of symptoms of urethritis in men have several things in common. They can occur in full or limited to a few manifestations, be present continuously or episodically. Usually the inflammatory process is limited to the local symptoms. There is a burning sensation and pain during urination, frequent urination increases when the urine becomes muddy colour. In some cases, to detect blood clots.
In addition to the General signs, symptoms are specific to a particular pathogen. They often differ in nature and intensity options. Think about how inflammation occurs in the urethra of various etiologies.
It starts badly, develops quickly. Gonorrhea is an extreme pain in the time urination, severe inflammation, hyperemia, edema of the head of the penis. Because of the large amount of pus, the urine becomes muddy colour. Gonococcal infection is characterized by a yellow discharge with blood.
It is characterized by constant unbearable itching, difficulty with bladder emptying. The process is pain and burning sensation. From urethra appear sparse gray-white discharge, and semen detected traces of blood.
Chlamydia urethritis in men is often asymptomatic, causing great risk of its transition in the chronic form. Burning and pain in the short term and a little stressed. Share colorless or small amount of pus, scanty, passing quickly.
Candida lose refers to non-specific inflammation and occurs when the fall of protective forces of the body. It is characterized by strong itching, a burning sensation, swelling and redness of the head. Share a thick, cheesy, white or reddish-white color.
The Virus in the urethra is characterized by a weakly pronounced wave-like. With the weakening of immunity can cause a particular skin rash around the external opening of the urethra. Exacerbations may be accompanied by General malaise, sore joints.
There is a huge variation in the incubation period, the first symptoms can be noticed after 2 – 3 months after infection. Hallmark – purulent discharge from the urethra, and other symptoms are poorly expressed, unclear.
In this form of inflammation of the allocation does not exist, but after injury there can be traces of blood in the urine. When stagnation occurs violation of urination allergic inflammation, swelling of natural selection.
The symptoms of chronic form of the disease
What is the urethra in males in the chronic form? It is indolent, almost asymptomatic inflammatory process, which flows to the disease without necessary treatment. It can last for years with alternating periods of calm and aggravation.
Relapses usually occur after a disease or long-term physical and emotional stress. Symptoms resemble the acute stage of pain, impaired urination and discharge from the urethra channel, but in a more benign form. Without adequate treatment, the symptoms gradually subside, and there is a stage, calm.
In the period of remission the symptoms subside at all, or to remind yourself a bit of a burning sensation, sometimes scanty discharge. The general condition does not suffer, urinary function is not compromised. Although the clinic, the chronic form of dangerous complications.
Acute inflammation of the urethra can occur alone, but without treatment, the infectious process from the surrounding organs and tissues. In men, urethritis often goes:
- inflammation of the foreskin;
- with the retraction process of the prostate gland;
- with orchitis infection of the testes;
- inflammation of the bladder.
Combined cystitis and the urethra in men is one of the causative agent in 90% of cases this is E. coli, and infections, which are transmitted by sexual contact. Aggravating factors include: hypothermia, prolonged stress, serious viral disease, and weakening of the immune system strength.
Acute cystitis in men is manifested by the following:
- pain and cramps when emptying;
- hyperemia and edema of the mucous membrane;
- difficulty urinating;
- purulent and bloody discharge from the urethra;
- discomfort in the lower abdomen, aching pain.
After identification of the pathogen, combined with urethritis and cystitis are treated in the same way. Treatment should be discontinued, because both diseases are prone to chronic process.
Before deciding how to treat urethritis in men, it is necessary to conduct a survey to identify the pathogen and determine its sensitivity to drugs. Diagnosis begins with history taking and visual inspection.
Take a total blood test to determine the intensity of the inflammatory leukocytes. Urine rent in the morning – the first clear after the night's sleep. Urine analysis can be used to identify the pathogen and to perform a sensitivity analysis to antibiotics. Discharge from the urethra in men is also do a bacterial culture and microscopic examination. All laboratory tests are carried out on the background of complete exclusion of antibiotics. In some cases, may require instrumental examination, ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs, x-ray, endoscopy of the bladder and urethra.
Methods of treatment
Treatment of urethritis in men did not require hospital treatment, and successfully performed on an outpatient basis. The choice of drugs depends on the form of the disease and the result of cultures. The main group used to treat – antibiotics. Methods of introduction vary and are agreed between the doctor and the patient. Medicines can be taken in pill form, it is given intramuscularly or intravenously, or delivered directly to the lesion, with the catheter. Consider medicines for the treatment of urethritis in men, depending on the identification of the pathogen.
Gonococcal and bacterial inflammation
In 40% of cases is mono therapy of cephalosporin antibiotics. In chronic process is often prescribed for tetracycline group. Complicated gonorrheal urethritis in men is treated by combining several groups of drugs.
Antibiotic therapy requires preventive reception of antimycotic drugs. Mandatory for prescribed immunomodulators and vitamins.
To control the efficiency of treatment is necessary three times, with a certain time interval test to identify the gonococcus.
To treat this kind of applies a time-tested, of course, taking metronidazole or when at the maximum possible dose. Shown, taking immunostimulatory drugs and a concentrated supplement.
The prevalence of chlamydia
How to treat a chlamydia infection is determined by a physician, based on the result of the bacterial analysis. The best result to give care and antibiotics of the tetracycline group. Along with the antibacterial prescribed hormone therapy.
Observation of the urethra in men is a fungal infection will require antifungal medication in tablet form. Topically used antifungal ointment. Great importance is attached to the immunostimulatory therapy.
More common infection with herpes simplex virus 1 and type 2. In this case, the treatment of urethritis in men medicines, antiviral activity. There is an opinion that completely cure herpes virus is not possible, but it is possible to achieve stable remission.
Inflammation of unknown etiology
30 – 40% of cases pathogens can not be determined, but the continued antibacterial treatment gives good results. How to cure a urethra in males, no further diagnosis? Appointed by broad-spectrum antibiotics of several groups. In addition, the use of antifungal and tonic. The system may change at the discretion of the attending physician.
Treatment of inflamed bladder
The infectious process often extends to the urethra, so I wonder how to treat cystitis along with urethritis. Will become a major pathogen of the bacterial microflora. His treatment reliable macrolide antibiotic, ftorhinolon or tetracycline. In addition, it is specified prophylactic antifungals and taking a multivitamin.
Inflammation of the urethra in boys
In children, the main cause of the disease is E. coli. The urethra occurs in boys more often than girls, due to the development of phimosis and, as a consequence, to create a favorable environment for the growth of pathogenic flora.
The child becomes restless, he was tormented by the itching, painful urination. Can be light, which is added to the pus discharge. The urine becomes turbid blood. Treatment of urethritis in men and treatment in children is antibiotics, but unlike adults the choice of means, the child is done carefully, focusing on the age group.
Complications and forecasts
A man of sense to go to the doctor with a similar problem a shame, but late or not the right care threatens many complications. The infection can spread to the surrounding organs, causing cystitis, pyelonephritis, prostatitis. The result is a violation of the sexual functions and infertility.
Chlamydia infection occurs in the later loss of joint tissue and systematic conjunctivitis. Purulent urethritis leads to structural changes in the mucous membranes of the urinary channel in its expansion and narrowing of the lumen.
When properly conducted therapy can quickly and completely get rid of the problem, the prognosis in this case is favorable.
Understanding the causes of urethritis, and that it is easy to determine preventive measures:
- the removal of uncertain sex;
- use condoms as protection;
- observe the rules of hygiene;
- attentive to their health, if any suspicious symptoms, contact your doctor immediately;
- in an improved psycho – physical stress take vitamin complexes;
- to avoid hypothermia;
- stick to a balanced diet, not get involved with harmful products;
- strengthens the immune system.
Acute inflammation that a lot of unpleasant symptoms, but neglected, not cured, the process is much worse than their long-term consequences. About 40% of men of retirement age suffer from prostatitis, and this is a direct consequence of chronic urethritis. The sad statistics, because the inflammation of the urinary channel is completely treatable with all the recommendations.