Male infertility: the main causes and diagnosis

Recently, there is a serious problem, both medical and social has become infertility in men and diagnosis of the various causes of inability to conceive offspring.

Male infertility is a violation of male reproductive function. It is the result of changes in the quality and quantity of sperm, which are due to inflammatory processes of the genitals, infectious and chronic diseases.

So far infertility in men is on par with female infertility. According to statistics, the proportion of childless couples through the fault of men is 45%. If within one year of regular sexual intercourse the woman has not become pregnant, the sexual partner is considered infertile.

Male infertility

Causes of male infertility

There are many different reasons that ultimately don't let a man be a father. Only properly conducted diagnostics can be based on the final diagnosis of the disease. The main causes of infertility in men are:

  1. Varicocele is one cause of inferiority complex. Based on the pathology lies in varicose blood vessels dilation of the spermatic cord, which operates the outlet channel of the sperm. Because of the disease the temperature rises in the testis, which ultimately affects the condition of the sperm. To determine the existence of a varicocele can only be a doctor.
  2. Genital injuries or defects in their development – a major reason why man is not capable of fertilization. The main shortcomings are: the presence of only one testicle, popushina they the scrotum, there is a fault in the development of the penis, where the urethra opens below the head.
  3. Genetic disorders can cause not only male infertility, but the birth of babies with genetic abnormalities that later are inherited. The presence of defects at the genetic level is sometimes not possible to apply the methods of ECO, because there is a likelihood of having a baby with serious diseases and as a result is an expensive procedure can be ineffective.
  4. Infections – which are sexually transmitted diseases (trichomoniasis, syphilis, etc.).
  5. Infection, which leads to cell damage, whose task is to produce sperm: brucellosis, mumps, etc.
  6. Inflammatory processes of the prostate and ureters.
  7. The reason, wearing a sexy figure – the lack of an erection or completely lack of it, premature ejaculation. To solve such problems not an andrologist and sexologist.
  8. Tumor of the testis – benign and malignant, are a leading cause of erectile dysfunction and male infertility.
  9. The decline and weakness of the immune system.
  10. Regular medication and antibiotics for a long time.

Types of male infertility

Inability to conceive is determined by two characteristics: anatomical and functional.

Infertility secretory – develops on the basis of violations of the formation and maturation of sperm. Can be both temporary and permanent.

Temporary disturbances related to adverse factors: increased body temperature, environment, harmful, toxic gases and so on. To remove the impact of these factors restores the natural process of formation and maturation of sperm.

Permanent infertility – the reason for this is genetic abnormalities or congenital disorders of the development of the channels of the epididymis. Loss of cell canaliculi system can be detected, when the disease epidemic parotitis and also in autoimmune disease. Atrophy of the cells of the seminiferous tubules and loss of the epididymis – the phenomenon is irreversible.

Excretory infertility is the reason for the difficulty is the passage of sperm from the excretory ducts. This made it difficult can cause adhesions in the tubules of the epididymis of one testicle. Sperm does not get into the semen. Usually adhesions are formed due to inflammatory processes, benign and malignant tumors in the tissues of the testicles because of injuries.

Autoimmune infertility is a result of the breach block the vessels and channels, making seed. The blood begins to develop the immune response – their own sperm takes the body of an alien invasion. As a result antisperm antibodies begin to reduce sperm motility and finally, the last dying at all.

Combined infertility – the reason is a violation of the maturation of the sperm, and the presence of other barriers to ejaculation.

Infertility is relative – is to determine, when the visible reasons are not available: semen analysis is normal, your sex life, there are no obstacles, but the long-awaited conception can not occur. The reason for this type of infertility violation of hygiene during sexual intercourse.

Diagnosis of infertility in men

After a medical examination the man prescribed the analysis of semen, which is repeated two-three times. It is highly recommended to abstain from intercourse and Masturbation for two to three days.

Amount of time is three to five milliliters, but if the amount is lower in the standing rules – this suggests a failure in the testes. If the sperm volume is less than two ml, even in spite of the positive sperm to conceive a child, it is unlikely, since the semen volume is small. One ml of semen should be at least twenty million sperm, low number of they speaks of oligozoospermia, which develops on the background of insufficiency of the testes or unilateral obstruction of the seed paths. This leads to infertility in men.

Bilateral obstruction, the absence of sperm in the semen is talk of azoospermia. To fertilize the egg, only one sperm, but reduces their number to a million idea is impossible. At the time of ejaculation on the cervix to get the two hundred million sperm, of which more than half is to win a mucous plug in the cervical canal, but only a small part of the sperm will reach the mouth of the tube to the uterus. Due to the fact that the egg is located in only one of the fallopian tubes, it covers only half of the sperm cells. So, the less they ejaculate, the less chance of misunderstanding. When a critical reduction in sperm count diagnosis male infertility.

A large amount of sperm is straightforward movements or chaotic. A smaller amount motile sperm is called asthenozoospermia, without them – necrozoospermia.


The frequency of sexual contact depends on both the mobility and quantity of sperm too soon. So the patient during the diagnosis of infertility it is recommended to abstain from sex to obtain reliable results semen. So directly to the sexual intercourse, the sperm loses fertility, and contraception is not needed.

If the couple do not abstain from sex before conception, they may be infertile, because often, the semen volume will rise to immature, with low sperm viability, mobility. The most Mature, viable sperm appear in the semen after only a few days of abstinence.

Morphological analysis estimates the percentage of normal sperm. If most of them are full of build – it is the norm, the amount deducted is called teratozoospermia. Many men to get a degree, find sometimes agglutination of sperm, which is contrary to normal levels. Sperm should be present in the plot clusters of sperm, the sperm is heterogeneous, and regions with high density and intense color and also slow down the sperm. Sperm, leading to infertility are the result of inflammatory pelvic disease, and hormonal disorders in the body.

A large number of leukocytes warn of inflammatory processes in the urine.

And research requires consultation of the urologist identify the following diseases: vesiculitis, prostatitis and epididymitis.

Functioning of the reproductive system in men

Sperm is the male reproductive cell, which contains the father's genes. Information about genes is concentrated in the sperm head, and because the tail of the sperm moves and reach the egg. First he moves along the channels, which pass into the straight tubule and the epididymis.

The length of all the tubules is about five hundred meters. Slowly channels, the sperm has time to Mature and can fertilize the egg. Epididymis it is the last stage of its growth and increase the flow of seed excretory duct in the seminal vesicles. Here the sperm accumulates, and then mixed with the epithelium of the secret which contains nutrients suitable for sperm. Still, the seminal vesicles-seminal fluid began to evacuate during ejaculation, mixed with the secret of the prostate gland. This resulting liquid is called semen.

The main reason for infertility in men are: blockage of the channel, when the sperm does not twist the urethra, because of the obstacles, violation of the secretory function of the.

Treatment of infertility in men

There are many methods to treat this man's disease:

  1. Surgery – varicocele can be cured by surgical procedure, but the blockage of the duct can only be removed. Patency is restored after the procedure vasectomy. If semen is not sperm, it is possible to get the testicle or its appendages (the epididymis) and then used for fertilization by artificial means.
  2. Diseases on the background of infection – antibiotics to fight infectious diseases sexual way, but sometimes antibiotic treatment to restore the fertility issues are.
  3. Treat sexual problems drugs and to consult a professional expert to help solve such pathology, as erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation.
  4. Treatment of hormonal – this treatment is given if the deviation of the concentration of certain hormones in the blood.
  5. Artificial insemination is a normal sperm (from a donor after extraction), feed them to the female genital organs and fertilization, bypassing the woman's body (intracytoplasmic injection). Rarely male fertility is not restored, but the couple is still the possibility of using donor sperm.

Risk factors

Factors causing the inability to get pregnant are:

  • Illegal drug use,
  • Excessive alcohol consumption,
  • Overweight,
  • Smoking,
  • Infectious diseases
  • Trauma to the testicles
  • Toxic substances and gases,
  • Violation of the temperature of the testes
  • Surgery abdominal, pelvic, vasectomy,
  • Congenital disorder of fertility of men or family,
  • Pathology – varieties of tumors, chronic diseases,
  • Surgical intervention
  • Certain therapies – therapy, laser and more.

Infertility prevention

The news of infertility comes from men a tragic surprise. Women are also experiencing shock upon learning of the futility of partners, but it pales compared to the pain, which passes through man, the news, because in the subconscious of most men identificeret his manhood with the function of sexual organs. And there is news about the inability to have children causes a painful blow to the ego. Sometimes the husband leaves the family, believing himself to not have the right to create a serious relationship. Often, the situation ends in alcoholism, relations between spouses are changing, and not for the better.

Many men reject studies because they are afraid to hear infertility. But if the family is a problem of perception, it is necessary to follow the recommendations of the experts, how to make your sex life. In this situation, the partners sometimes neglect love games, foreplay and only think about performing your doctor's advice. This has a negative impact on relationships between partners.

Incompatibility between spouses

Some couples is a factor of immune infertility, in which the body of men and women to produce specific proteins. They have an adverse effect on sperm cells and do not allow them to interact with the egg. This is the reason behind incompatibility of partners. In such cases, the study of men's blood and semen antibodies.

Treatment of male infertility


Diet required the presence of the following products: nuts, honey, fish, cheese, sea foods. Garlic, vegetable oil, fruits, vegetables and herbs.

A way of life

Adversely affect the activity of the male reproductive system the following factors: fatigue, stress, saunas, Smoking, poor working conditions, alcohol and drugs. Rare sexual relations lead to stagnation in the reproductive system. Even the lack of exercise has a negative effect on fertility. If you properly organize your way of life, it is possible to manage without drug treatment.

Normal sleep does not control physical activity, appropriate weight, the fixation of sexual life, proper nutrition and raise the tone of the reproductive system.

According to the latest measurements, statistics, one in four men able to conceive a child for a long but productive treatment. Efficacy for the treatment of male infertility is 15% more than in the successful treatment of female infertility.