BPH symptoms in men, first signs, causes, treatment and complications of adenoma

Prostate adenoma — benign tumor that develops in the stroma or the glandular epithelium of the prostate. Actually, the tumor has not spread, but can over time turn into adenocarcinoma (prostate cancer).

30-40% of men over 50 years and 75 to 90 %, over 65 years there is a change in the form of proliferation of the glandular tissue of the neck of the bladder.

What is this disease, why it occurs in men after 40 years, what are the first symptoms that is prescribed for the treatment, consider forward.

What is BPH?


BPH is a benign tumor of the paraurethral glands located around the urethra. The main symptoms of BPH - a violation of urination due to the gradual compression of the urethra one or multiple growing nodules.

If the adenoma is the growth of the body, which provokes a squeezing of the bladder and urethra. This is a violation of the current urine, and lead to the accumulation of residual urine. In addition, men can develop a urinary tract infection, kidney stones, and cancer. The growth is painless, it's dangerous for the fast diagnosis of the disease.

The prostate gland: what is it?

The prostate, also known as the prostate gland is an important organ, which is located slightly below the bladder. The main purpose of the prostate – specific secret generation, which is part of semen. The secret of the prostate, determining the consistency of the ejaculate (in particular, contributes to its dilution), contains vitamins, enzymes, immunoglobulin, zinc ions, etc.

The main functions of the prostate are:

  • thinning of semen, allowing the sperm to become active in the movement and generally become a viable;
  • the development of the secret lies in its composition, it has enzymes, proteins, fats and hormones, without which sexual system is not functioning normally;
  • the emission of seed of smooth muscles of the prostate gland to shrink, which ensures the supply of semen to the urethra, and in this way, and happens ejaculation.


BPH develops and grows gradually. Although this disease occurs mainly in older men, the first symptoms may reveal is of 30-40 years. Interestingly, the first nodules of cells forming en masse and only after a long period of time begins to grow in size.

The reasons for this development:

  1. The first group includes reasons, as a way of life, which increases the possibility of spread of the prostate. For example, it can be a sedentary job or an active mental stress without physical. Therefore, the role of regular exercise cannot be overemphasized.
  2. The second group includes the objective reasons independent of a person's lifestyle. It is proved that BPH is due to changes in hormonal men. If you think that these changes will inevitably occur in the elderly, it can be concluded that only some men are so lucky, to avoid problems with the prostate gland.

There are several factors that can contribute to the development of adenoma. These are:

  • Weight (accumulation of fat promotes the production of female hormones);
  • Hereditary factor;
  • Atherosclerosis;
  • Abuse Smoking and alcohol;
  • Inflammatory processes in the kidney and urethra;
  • Lack of exercise and poor diet;
  • High blood pressure.

Variety of benign prostatic hyperplasia

Structure and layout there are three types of adenomas:

  1. The tumor through the urethra invades the bladder, deforming the internal sphincter and disrupting its activities.
  2. The tumor grows in the direction of the rectum, urination is disturbed slightly, but the loss of contractility of the prostatic urethra does not allow to fully empty the bladder.
  3. Uniform gasket pressure prostate adenoma without it growth is not observed no urinary retention in the bladder or reject. This is the most favorable view of the adenoma.

The symptoms of BPH in men

There are two groups of symptoms of BPH: obstructive and irritation.

The first group the symptoms of BPH are:

  • frequent urination,
  • continuous (imperative) urge to urinate,
  • nocturia,
  • incontinence.

In the group of obstructive symptoms characteristic of BPH are:

  • difficulty urinating,
  • the delay at the beginning and increase the time of urination,
  • feeling of incomplete emptying,
  • intermittent urination slow stream.

The first signs you should pay attention to:

  • The first signs of adenoma of the prostate, weak urine flow, frequent urination, which does not always lead to the emptying of the bladder.
  • Because the tumor acquired serious dimensions, the patient does not want to find out what causes BPH, more than he cares about how to get rid of disturbing symptoms. Urination is difficult, you need to strain to urinate, combined with your abdominal muscles.

A complication of the prostate and its transition into the severe stage, all the symptoms increasing, which adversely affects the patient's life. In difficult cases, assistance can only function, which is why it is so important to pay attention to the symptoms. Although they repeated 1-2 times, pass a full inspection.

Compensation in the form of

Typical changes in urination at this stage:

  • more often
  • less free
  • not with the same intensity as before (the flow of urine already is not a characteristic of a parabola, and falls almost vertically).

With the further growth of the prostate and overcome the compression of the urethra appear the following symptoms:

  • increased frequency of urination day
  • funding decreases urine volume
  • an increase in cases of uncontrollable desire to urinate (so-called. mandatory sneeze),
  • participation in extra muscles.

Subcompensated stage

Subcompensated – enlarged prostate reached a level when it starts to affect the bladder to raise the urine from the body. Violations occur:

  • the liberation of the bladder occurs parts,
  • the bladder wall with increased thickness,
  • there is a delay of urine,
  • when it is full, the bladder may occur in the involuntary release of urine,
  • the urine may be cloudy and contain blood.

Phase 3 BPH - decompensated

There's a drop in the contractile ability of the bladder to the minimum limits, the increase of residual urine can be approximately two liters. It is also important to sudden stretching of the bladder, where it is presented in the form of oval or spherical shape, to reach the pole, and in some cases will rise much higher.

At the same time, during the night, and later in the day, the urine is regularly or constantly stands out, it happens in an involuntary way, through drops of a full bladder.

Associated symptoms of adenoma:

  • weakness,
  • nausea and loss of appetite,
  • constipation,
  • thirst and dry mouth.

Effects men

Complications of BPH:

  • Acute urinary retention. Complications occur in 2 or 3 stages of the disease, due to compression of the urethra by the hypertrophied prostate gland.
  • Inflammation of the urinary tract. Stagnant processes in the bladder leading to bacterial growth. They provoke the development of cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis.
  • Urinary stone disease. Incomplete emptying of the bladder lead to the appearance of it microliths, stone or mineral deposits. They can cause blockage of the bladder, urinary retention.
  • Hematuria. The appearance of urinary red blood cells, cause that comes with varicose veins in the bladder neck.


It is not an exaggeration, if we say that the successful diagnosis of BPH is directly dependent on the patient. At an early stage, that is, the query can give you the indicators that the expert may suspect the presence of disease.

The diagnostic consists of:

  1. The doctor perform a digital examination of the prostate.
  2. In order to assess the severity of symptoms of BPH, the patient is asked to fill in a diary of urination.
  3. A study done on prostate secretion and spread to the urethra to rule out infectious complications.
  4. Perform ultrasound prostate, during which determine the volume of the prostate, identify rocks and regions, which has stalled, estimate the amount of residual urine, the kidney and urinary tract.

Analysis PSA prostate adenoma – an important indicator in determining the extent of disease and treatment. Such a study is recommended to place every man, more than 40 years, every year, because it comes to diagnose any abnormalities in the prostate and will help determine even cancer of the prostate.

Each gram of benign adenoma of the prostate raises the PSA level of 0.3 ng/l, and each gram of cancer to 3.5 ng/ml in the adenoma of the prostate level of prostate specific antigen almost never rises above 10 ng/ml. If this happens, there is a suspicion of cancer.

For the treatment of BPH

The standard treatment of BPH in men may be drugs more effective and less invasive. The basic technique – a surgical procedure that is prescribed to all patients with infravesical obstruction.

For the treatment of BPH depending on the stage:

    What is dangerous prostatitis
  1. The first step can often manage conservative treatment, which, however, does not exclude the manifestations of acute and often urinary retention, increased frequency of urination (up to 10 times), the formation of the bleeding stopped veins of the bladder or the emergence of large stones. This in turn leads to the measurement in the form of operative intervention, even if the residual urine.
  2. In the second stage. The gold standard help at this stage — the removal of the adenoma surgery using different minimally invasive and classic techniques.
  3. The third step. Here the main task is to ensure good drainage of urine to remove toxicity. In this case, the use of percutaneous nephrostomy, cystostomy, etc. to normalize the condition of the liver, kidneys, cardiovascular system, and then decide it is possible to further surgical treatment.


Medicines and at the same time eliminate the symptoms and manifestations of the disease refers to the gentle methods of treatment, making it possible to avoid surgery. How effective the drug depends on the severity of the adenoma.


  1. Alpha-blockers relax the muscles of the bladder and the prostate, normalizes the process of urination.
  2. Inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase is necessary to reduce the amount of glandular tissue tumors of the prostate, to monitor and adjust hormonal background.
  3. Antibiotics are necessary to reduce the activity of pathogenic flora, if the cause of adenomas is an infection, and its rapid increase.
  4. Anti-inflammatory medicines for men are needed in the rapid removal of inflammation of the prostate gland, reduce the acute pain in the prostate adenoma.
  5. Antispasmodics man is necessary, if the pain even after following a strict diet is not retreats, not weakened.


Surgical measures are applied with the ineffectiveness of conservative treatment, or when the extent of the disease. This adenoma of the prostate operation is assigned to the absolute entries:

  • The impossibility of urination;
  • Massive hematuria;
  • Stones in the bladder;
  • Pathological processes of the prostate gland;
  • Growth in the average share of the prostate;
  • Renal failure;
  • A large number of residual urine.

Unplanned (emergency) surgery is performed a few days after the establishment, the development of complications: if severe bleeding that threatens the patient's life, and urinary retention in the acute form.

There are different methods of surgical treatment of prostate adenoma:

  • Transurethral resection or TUR is a wide-spread method, because this operation is carried out of the urethra through without cuts. However, it can be applied only when the weight of the adenoma up to 60 g and 150 mg of residual urine in the bladder. Also, this method will not be used in patients with renal impairment.
  • Adenomectomy (open prostatectomy) is a popular method for surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, because at least several topics. It is best to use the weight of the prostate is over 40 g and the amount of residual urine 150 ml. Do not inhibit the activity and variety of complications.

Diet adenoma

The Power mode is selected for each patient individually, taking into account the extent to which the neglect of the disease, the general condition of the patient and his history, and tastes of the patient. But, as practice shows, without a change in the system and the balance of power is not enough.

Special attention must be given to foods rich in selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), which has a positive effect on the tumor, reduce its size. During illness, a person needs during the day to 25 mg of zinc, and at least 5 micro-grams of selenium.

BPH is a serious disease that requires timely treatment, but only under the supervision of a specialist. No self-medication is not allowed here. Thank you and take care of your health!