The inability of the Mature male body for fertilization is called infertility. The problem occurs, usually with repeated failed attempts of conception for a couple. According to statistics, Russian families 45% of the cases to put the infertility in men the main cause of the inability to conceive a child.
Causes of male infertility
This is the mentality that first goes to the doctor women. And when, after a comprehensive examination and discover that she is healthy, the reproductive system is ready to conceive, there is a suspicion against the partner.
Successful fertilization and embryo development must meet the following criteria:
- the whole sperm sperm right;
- maturation of sperm;
- physiologically normal ejaculation;
- the activity of sperm outside the male sexual manner, until the merger of the egg and perform fertilization.
Infertility in males can be congenital or acquired. Congenital inability to conceive may be due to various diseases, the development of the testes (cryptorchidism, hypogonadism, etc.). Number of violations in the development of the urethra. More likely to be diagnosed with hypospadias, stricture. When these abnormalities of the sperm is not deposited in the vagina.
Diseases that cause infertility in men
Acquired causes of male infertility are numerous. Most often this condition is associated with the history of diseases. Chronic inflammatory diseases alter the normal spermatogenesis, leading to formation of abnormal sperm can fertilize. Causes inability to become pregnant following pathology:
- mumps (mumps);
- sexually transmitted disease;
- non-infectious inflammatory processes;
- developmental abnormalities of the reproductive organs (cryptorchidism, hypospadias, varicocele, hypogonadism);
- diabetes mellitus;
- damage to the reproductive system, surgery;
- hormonal disorders;
- the genetic factor.
Infertility in men, the causes of which are, as a rule, are complex, is usually placed.
Factors, contribute to the development of pathology
In addition to diseases, accompanied by phenomena of inflammation, circulatory disorders, hormonal changes, are contributing factors. Their presence exacerbates the effects of major cause or is the beginning of the mechanism of development of disorders of the reproductive system of the body.
Factors of infertility in men is very diverse:
- work with harmful production factors (ionizing radiation, vibration, chemicals, electromagnetic waves);
- lack of exercise, sedentary work;
- addictions (alcoholism, Smoking);
- professional Cycling exercise;
- tight underwear;
- overheating and overcooling of the pelvis;
- psycho-emotional overload, stress.
Not so bad, at first glance, all these factors are negatively reflected in indicators of sperm. Its qualitative and quantitative characteristics are reduced.
Type of male infertility and their properties
The nature of sterility is of three types:
- The Secretory form of infertility reflects inability of the gonads to develop a sufficient amount of active sperm. Often this is due to disruption of blood circulation in the tissues of the testes. Thus, the male sex cells are faults, their levels in semen dramatically reduced.
- Autoimmune disease infertility. Violation of the reproductive function in men in this case – complex forms, diagnosis and treatment. Factors of infertility auto-immune mechanisms are often trauma, surgery. Antisperm antibodies perceive their own sex cells like alien antibodies. They reduce the sperm motility, can negatively affect the process of spermatogenesis. Sperm cannot penetrate the cervical fluid.
- Excretory infertility. The reason excretory disorders include several inflammatory diseases, malformations of the urethra and the accessory genital glands. Cause infertility can prevent, vas deferens, and aspermatism. This form changes the qualitative indicators of semen: reduced concentration of sperm, their activity, is a pathological germ cells.
If the perception of autoimmune disease infertility happens, the antibodies break the sharing of a zygote, preventing the development of the embryo, and can cause abortion in the early stages.
Signs and symptoms of male infertility
Symptoms of infertility in men are often vague, undefined. Sexual Constitution, sexual activity has a small impact on the ability to think. As a rule, infertile men are very sexually active, do not experience sexual impotence impotence. The man himself is often not aware of the problem. No obvious symptoms of physical ailments of the violation of the reproductive ability is not observed.
In 90% of cases of male infertility occurs almost asymptomatic. It is characterized by one essential feature: due to fertilization during a regular sexual life during one year without using contraception in the background fertility of the female partner.
|Obvious signs of male infertility||Indirect signs of reproductive disorders|
Autoimmune and genetic abnormalities, no clinical signs.
Various causes of infertility in men, the symptoms of the disease without obvious symptoms, lead to timely treatment for the qualified help to the experts. This insidious pathology found, usually only after years of fruitless attempts of the men to acquire offspring.
The diagnosis of male infertility
The diagnosis of infertility is established after a comprehensive survey of the male body. The doctor collects a thorough history, analysis of the factors that may lead to a breach of reproductive functions. Some developmental pathology (hyposadias, cryptorchidism) diagnosed in the newborn age.
Varicocele is detected in the medical examination if the men complain of pain during intercourse. During the inspection it is reported hypogonadism.
The most informative are the following methods:
- the quality and quantity of semen;
- comprehensive blood and urine tests;
- immunological studies;
- tests for sexually transmitted diseases;
- studies of prostate secretion;
- The DNA analysis.
In most cases, the interpretation of semen to give the overall picture of reproductive capacity in men. This informative microstructural and morphological analysis allows to judge the motility of the sperm, the number of them. Semen analysis reveals defects in the structure of the male germ cell, the viscosity of the semen, its acidity, etc.
Ultrasound examination allows you to rule out diseases and pathology of the prostate and testes. For the diagnosis of inflammatory diseases of the use of microscopic methods in the study of biological fluids.
Hormonal tests aimed at determination of the concentration of blood testosterone, estrogen and other hormones. According to their results evaluated hormones of the male body, which is important for the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.
If you suspect obstruction of the seminiferous tubules, the doctor will prescribe x-ray examination with a contrast agent. Men suffering from varicocele can be determined by Doppler.
If necessary, address the other research methods, consultation of the endocrinologist, andrologist, sexologist.
It is worth noting that men are quite difficult to decide on the passing of the diagnosis due to the fact that most of the procedures, which they consider humiliating, and the second part is quite painful. It is important to maintain the spouse together to overcome difficulties on the path to pregnancy.
Prevention of male infertility
The etiology of violations of reproductive ability to the male body diverse. Therefore, the prevention of infertility is complex. Take care of men's health needs from childhood. Mandatory regular visits to the surgeon and urologist puberty.
A healthy lifestyle is one of the most important preventive measures for infertility. Moderate exercise, physical activity – the key to improve the functions of the reproductive system. Important full disclaimer men Smoking and drinking alcohol. Unwanted frequent overheating (saunas) and hypothermia.
A balanced diet, rich in proteins, nutrients, vitamins and minerals – good prevention not only infertility, but a strong immune system. Food should be healthy, natural. Excluded from the diet spicy, smoked, fried food. On the basis of the food should be fish, meat, vegetables and fruits. An important role to protect the male body from stress and negative emotional factors. Regular full sexual life constant companion is also a beneficial effect on the ability to fertile men.
Infertility in men is a problem not only medical but also social. Violation of the childbearing abilities of a strong half lead to emotional problems in the family, lowers the quality of social life. Therefore, it is necessary as soon as possible to seek medical consultation, start living a healthy lifestyle, to eliminate the factors that contribute to the development of reproductive dysfunction in men.