The urethra is a chronic or acute inflammation of the urethra (urine tube). The disease can occur in infectious or non-infectious form.
The treatment of the urethra begin to identify its causes. Only after the cause is established, doctor can select appropriate treatment for a particular patient.
Urethritis can be infectious origin. Food poisoning epidemic disease into the body through sexual contact or by sharing personal hygiene products.
Non-infectious origin of the disease suggests that the urethra is not obtained through sexual contact. The cause of the disease can be well enough to deal with medical tools, damage to the urethra, allergic reactions, etc.
Symptoms of the urethra
One of the first symptoms of urethritis painful urination. Appeal to an expert is recommended at this stage, because it is likely to continue to prevent the spread of infection. If you continue to ignore the unpleasant sensation that occurs during urination, the next symptom is purulent discharge. In some cases, it can be observed inflammation of the ear canals.
- Total urethritis is an inflammation of the entire urethra. The symptoms can be similar to symptoms of prostatitis.
- Acute urethritis can be determined by the presence of sharp pain and a burning sensation during urination. The lips of the urethra are colored bright red, there is swelling. Exhibited strong discharge from the urethra.
- After the acute forms of the disease can manifest itself, acute. Discharge from the urethra can be significantly reduced or disappear completely. Urine in acute urethritis becomes transparent. Can be purulent thread.
- In the absence of timely treatment the urethra can become chronic. Patients complain of neurotic phenomena. Minor bleeding in the urethra.
Urethritis are sometimes confused with prostatitis. Difficult and painful urination is characteristic for both diseases. Therefore, self-diagnosis is not acceptable. Also, do not take any independent action in the treatment of disease.
Patients who have decided to see a specialist, it is often very difficult to make a choice and the doctor decide what is best to go for: venereologist or the urologist. That sexually transmitted diseases are referred to those for whom casual sex are not uncommon. If the patient has a permanent sexual partner, or currently have a partner at all, you can start to address to the urologist.
The urethra is divided into two groups – infectious and non-infectious. The latter can be triggered by two groups of micro-organisms: non-specific (E. coli, Staphylococcus, etc.) and special (provokes sexually transmitted diseases). Let us consider the main types of infectious urethritis.
Bacteria in the urethra
Common nonspecific pathogenic bacterial flora of the urethra (in most cases this happens during sex with a casual partner) can have bacteria in the urethra. The disease is also often occurs, when long-term use of a catheter in the bladder or transurethral endoscopic manipulation. Bacteria in the urethra is divided into:
- Primary. Can be acute and chronic forms. Acute bacterial urethritis usually occurs without obvious symptoms, and is not strictly defined incubation period. The urethra is allocated pus and mucus. There is pain when emptying the bladder, burning and itching in the urethra. Possible mild swelling of the external opening and the mucous membrane of the urethra. Blood, semen, and ejaculation disorder may occur in cases where the process of seed tubercle of the posterior urethra.
- Secondary. Can develop a local inflammatory process, which any infectious disease, such as pneumonia. A secondary non-specific urethritis in most cases, is a long-time and latency. Adult patients may complain of pain when urinating. A little Muco-purulent discharge in the morning. Children, unlike adults, rarely complain of painful urination. There redness and agglutination of the lips of the external opening of the urethra.
In the treatment of bacterial urethritis, it is necessary to take into account the sensitivity of the pathogen to a particular drug, as well as the pathogenesis and etiology. If the urethra is parallel to the cystitis, the doctor will prescribe a comprehensive treatment, which includes physiotherapy.
If the size of the treatment is not sufficiently effective, can be determined by local treatment, such as instillation into the urethra of the solutions collargol, silver, etc.
The causative agent of the disease is the gonococci into the body during sexual intercourse. In addition, infection can occur through common goods, for example. towel.
Treatment of gonorrheal urethritis is carried out only under the supervision of a doctor. Recently treated with cephalosporins, because it was noted that the gonococcus has become less susceptible to traditional penicillin. After treatment it is necessary to test the patient's presence in its organism of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The patient is a so-called provocation, which repeats after a certain period of time. Gonorrheal urethritis leaves no immunity. Therefore, it is possible to re-infection.
Urethritis caused by fungus
This type of the urethra is very rare. The disease can occur in lesions of the urethra of yeast fungi. In most cases, the appearance of the disease is the result of long-term antimicrobial treatment. In addition, this type of urethritis can be transmitted through sexual contact. The type of the disease can occur almost asymptomatic. Possible whitish discharge from the urethra, itching and burning. If the diagnosis of the patient takes antibiotics, the doctor to undo them and replace antifungal drugs.
Virus the urethra
Most often, the disease affects viral conjunctivitis, which develops in the urethra. The Virus tends to multiply in the epithelial cells of the cervix, vagina, urethra and conjunctiva. When this happens, inflammation in the body.
Infection is possible through sexual contact. This type of disease is usually slow. Virus the urethra may be accompanied by joint damage. The treatment you may experience some difficulties. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are usually combined with corticosteroid hormones.
This type of urethritis is characterized by white frothy discharge from the urethra. There can be mild itching. The development of the disease begin 5 to 15 days after infection. Chronic Trichomonas urethritis can be complicated by the prostate inflammation similar. The complication is observed in 15-20% of cases. In order to prevent re-infection and treatment of both partners. If necessary, you can repeat the course.
The urethra in women
Contrary to popular belief that only the male urethra is a disease, a disease often found in women. However, taking into account, that the urethra in a woman's body is much shorter than the male urethra inflammation in women may be asymptomatic and painless. It is easier to detect gonococcal urethritis, because it is associated with a sharp pain and purulent discharge from the urethra.
If the patient is not addressed to the expert time, he began to cystitis, which is inflammation of the bladder. Symptoms of both diseases are so similar, that the urethra can be taken for cystitis, because the main symptom will often need to urinate. Causes of urethritis in women can be:
- sexual infections;
- errors in diet;
- gynecological diseases.
Less common causes of urethritis are:
- Medical treatment. When to perform cystoscopy and catheterization are not sufficiently qualified doctor can cause damage to the wall of the urethra or introduce infection, which contributes to the development of the disease.
- Urinary stone disease. When formed in the kidney crystals and sand through the urethra, they damage the walls of the urethra.
The urethra in women as well as men, is complications. In addition to the cystitis, one of the most important complications is to get pyelonephritis. In addition, chronic urethritis without treatment can lead to deformation of the urethra, its decline. Deformation complicates the process of urination.
Treatment of urethritis in women requires 3 main steps:
- The first step is to remove the inflammation of the urethra;
- The second step is to restore the normal vaginal flora, especially if the urethra was caused by sex the infection;
- The third step is to implement all the necessary measures to restore the immune system. Increasing the resistance makes the body less prone to infections.
Prevention of urethritis in women has its own characteristics:
- need to fix the problems with the chair – constipation and diarrhea;
- should be avoided combination of anal and vaginal sex, and casual sex
- a visit to the gynecologist should be a regular, regardless of the presence of symptoms.
The diagnosis of urethritis
In the first stage, the student will identify the cause of the urethra. You need to find the pathogens. However, if the urethra is not pus, to establish the cause of the disease is not easy. Pick up the pus is used in thermal, chemical and physical provocative tests. The easiest is considered a chemical method: the patient takes the medicine, followed by copious pus. Thermal and mechanical methods more difficult and painful. Get pus, the mucous membrane of the urethra, irritates the thin metal sensor (physical method) or thermal effects (thermal method).
There are more modern methods of detection of causative agents of disease. In many health centers, polymerase chain reaction. This research method requires a suitable biological fluid of the patient the DNA of the pathogen in the urethra.
Patients never damage to pelvic organs may designate an x-ray of the urethra. With the help of contrast radiography can detect defects of the walls of the urethra. In addition, the survey is widely used for urethroscopy, in which the urethra is injected into a special optical device.
The treatment of the urethra
In most cases, the treatment of the urethra, antibiotics are used. To achieve the best results, it is necessary to view information about the antibiogram. This means that before the patient appoint antibiotics, the doctor should determine how high the sensitivity of the patient's medication. Selection of antibiotics is a few days after the patient was diagnosed. During these days the patient must not be left without medical assistance. The patient may temporarily prescribe antibiotics of the penicillin group, that is, broad-spectrum antibiotics. Currently, the widely used semi-synthetic penicillins. This group of drugs has a greater effect on the pathogen, when it is resistant to a biological environment. If this group of drugs prove ineffective, the patient can prescribe more powerful antibiotics. Perhaps the appointment of antiseptic substances for washing the urethra. Flushing should be performed only by an expert.
Undergoing treatment for urethritis, the patient should follow a diet, which prohibits foods that increase the secretion of the mucous membrane of the urethra. These products mainly contain spicy seasonings and spices.
It should be remembered that rehabilitation (psychological) after the urethra maybe you don't want the patient and his partner. Often, detection of the urethra of the partner, you unknowingly began to accuse each other of treason. After the patient was diagnosed with a visit to the doctor can be together. Expert explains the partner of the patient, the presence of inflammation of urethra no evidence of the infidelity of men.
The probability of occurrence of the disease can be minimized if you follow a few simple rules.
- First of all, you should avoid casual relationships.
- Personal hygiene reduces the likelihood of infection.
- Rejection of bad habits: Smoking and excessive alcohol use.
- Regular preventive under the supervision of a urologist.
- Diet: do not abuse of spicy, pickled, salted food.
- Timely treatment of infectious diseases of the genitourinary system.
- To avoid overcooling.
The greatest risk of infection faced by men who suffer from inflammation of the pancreas, intestines, gall bladder and some other internal organs. The probability of infecting those who often suffer from tonsillitis.